Marine activities and pressures evidence

 

An activity can be defined as “a human social or economic action or endeavour that may create pressures on the marine environment”. A standard UK list of marine activities and their definitions has been collated by JNCC and formally agreed by the Marine Assessment and Reporting Group (MARG), the Healthy and Biologically Diverse Seas Evidence Group (HBDSEG), and the UK Marine Monitoring and Assessment Strategy (UKMMAS) sub-group on spatial data collation on human activities and pressures: Activities list

A pressure can be defined as “the mechanism through which an activity has an effect on any part of the ecosystem”. The nature of the pressure is determined by activity type, intensity and distribution. A list of marine pressures and their definitions has been formally agreed by the OSPAR Intercessional Correspondence Group on Cumulative Effects (ICG-C): Pressures list

 

Offshore Windfarm © Alex BrownAggregate Dredging © British Marine Aggregate Producers AssociationSunset ships

JNCC are undertaking work to gather evidence for the links between activities and pressures. Based on a review of previous attempts to link human activities with marine pressures, JNCC produced a table summarising the pressure-activity links identified within each of the studies.  In setting out these links, this work determines what activity data are ideally required to create spatial maps of marine pressures.  JNCC have further built on this by working with Defra and ABPmer to produce a database which shows evidence for pressures-activities links.  Further information on the database is available below and the database can also be downloaded with a user guide.

In 2013, JNCC compiled a pressures-activities matrix which identified 39 human use activity categories and 34 human pressure types. In 2015, Defra commissioned a project led by ABPmer and Cefas, and funded by the UK Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Biodiversity Indicators Research and Development Funders' Group, to develop the evidence base for understanding the relationships between these human activities and pressures within the marine environment.  JNCC’s role in this project was to scope and manage the contract on behalf of Defra and the Funders Group.


A database has been produced as part of the project to record the outputs of the literature review, including the collated evidence for links between the human activities and sub-activities and the relevant pressures. A report and two page summary have also been produced and are available on the Defra website.

 


Click to download the pressures-activities database

 

The database has five options, which you can select when you open the database:
1.    Show activities
2.    Show sub-activities
3.    Show pressures
4.    Show sub-activities by activity
5.    Show pressures-activities matrix
 

Opening form of pressure-activities database

1.   Show activities

This button opens a report that shows all of the activities. The activities are grouped by category and include a description, and are based on the Standard List of Human Activities in the Marine Environment. Note that several different fishing activities are present in this list, but in the main Activities – Pressures matrix these are merged into a single fishing activity.

 

2.   Show sub-activities

This button shows the list of sub-activities developed for this project by ABPmer. The sub-activities are grouped by activity phases (Pre-construction, Construction, Operation and Decommissioning). Some sub-activities occur in multiple activity phases, such as vessel movements.

 

3.    Show pressures

This button shows the list of pressures used in this project, grouped by pressure theme. This is taken from the list of defined pressures agreed by the OSPAR Intercessional Group on Cumulative Effects.

 

4.    Show sub-activities by activity

This button opens a form which shows the sub-activities that are relevant to a particular activity. The form has two selection boxes. 

  • The Activity box can be used to select the desired activity. The sub-activities relevant to this activity will then be shown.
  • The Activity Category box can be used to filter the list of activities in the activity control to activities from a single category, making it easier to find the desired activity.

 

5. Show activities-pressures matrix

This button opens a form that gives a range of filtering options. The filters work using list boxes in which one or multiple options can be selected. Note that selecting none of the options in a list box is equivalent to selecting all of them, so if no filters are selected the matrix will be shown for all activities, sub-activities and pressures. Once the desired filters have been selected, the “Show activities-pressures matrix” button on this form then opens the activities-pressures matrix, showing only the activities, sub-activities and pressures selected.


The filter options are split into four separate tabs, and filters from more than one tab can be applied simultaneously.

 

Pressures-activities form

 

a.    Activity tab
This tab can be used to filter based on activity. Activities are selected in the lower list box, and multiple activities can be selected. The activity categories in the upper list box can be used to show the activities-pressures matrix for all activities in a particular activity category. It also filters the activity list in the lower list box, so can be used to make it easier to find a specific activity.
b.   Sub-activity tab
This tab works similarly to the Activity tab, but the upper list box shows the activity phases and the lower list box shows the sub-activities.
c.    Pressure tab
This tab works similarly to the Activity tab, but the upper list box shows the pressure themes and the lower list box shows the pressures.
d.   Other tab
This tab has two independent list boxes. The upper list box can be used to filter on evidence level, showing the activities-pressures matrix only for activity-pressure linkages resulting in pressures at particular evidence levels. The lower list box can be used to filter on the confidence level of the activity-pressure link.

 


Click to download the pressures-activities database user guide

 

ME5218 was funded by the UK Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Biodiversity Indicators Research and Development Funders' Group.  The MSFD Biodiversity Indicators Research and Development Funders' Group was formed to assist with funding and oversee research required to develop biodiversity related indicators for the MSFD and is supported by the Healthy and Biologically Diverse Seas Evidence Group (HBDSEG) . The Funders' Group consists of representatives from Defra, Welsh Government, Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland, Marine Scotland, Joint Nature Conservation Committee and the Chair of HBDSEG.