Updated Conservation Advice is now available for Braemar Pockmarks SAC under the Conservation Advice tab below.
The public consultation on a proposed boundary amendment for this site closed on November 17th 2017. Further information on the consultation is available here. JNCC are currently reviewing comments and a post-consultation report will be available in due course.

Braemar Pockmarks MPA

Status: Special Area of Conservation (SAC)


The Braemar pockmarks are a series of crater-like depressions in the seabed in the Northern North Sea, approximately 240 km east of the Orkney Islands.


It is thought that the pockmarks, which represent seafloor depressions, were probably formed by the venting of biogenic/petrogenic fluids or gases into the water column. A number of these pockmarks contain carbonate blocks and pavement slabs in the base of them which are known as ‘Submarine structures made by leaking gases’ - a listed habitat under Annex I of the EC Habitats Directive. These carbonate blocks and pavement slabs form when methane is released from the seabed and reacts with water. The habitat created supports chemosynthetic organisms that feed off the bubbling methane, turning it into a source of energy, and also provides shelter for larger animals such as wolf-fish, haddock, conger eel and cod.


More detailed site information can be found on the Summary tab.

Map displaying MPA boundary and

associated protected feature data.

Visit the JNCC MPA Mapper to further

view and explore data for this MPA.


Legislation behind the designation: EU Habitats Directive 1992 transposed into UK law by the Conservation of Offshore Marine Habitats and Species Regulations 2017.


Protected features

Features Feature Type
1180 Submarine structures made by leaking gases Annex I Habitat*

* For the latest Annex I habitat resource figures, please see the link to the latest Habitats Directive Article 17 reporting in the Assessment tab.


The acquisition of new data may result in updates to our knowledge on feature presence and extent within this site. The most up to date information is reflected on the map on this page and in JNCC’s MPA mapper and the evidence underpinning this can be viewed in the Evidence tab.

Site Timeline

The diagram below is a summary of the key milestones involved in the selection and designation of Braemar Pockmarks SAC.  More detail can be found within the Relevant Documentation.

Relevant Documentation

The documents referred to below and any other historical documents relating to Braemar Pockmarks SAC were produced during the selection and designation process and therefore may be out of date.  This Site Information Centre is the most up to date source of information for this MPA, and will reflect any additional information gathered since these documents were produced. Information about the SAC site selection process is available on the JNCC SAC pages.





Last updated: June 2017


Information for this site summary was adapted from documents listed in Relevant Documentation and incorporates any further information gathered since these documents were produced.


Site overview

The Braemar pockmarks are a series of crater-like depressions on the sea floor at a depth of approximately 120 m, the area is known to contain the Annex I habitat “Submarine structures made by leaking gases”. There are 27 Pockmark depressions within the site of various sizes, from 40cm deep and 330m2 to 4m deep with an area of 10000m2. A further 21 pockmarks are located within 1km of the site boundary. The site’s name originates from its proximity to the Braemar oil field in the Northern North Sea, approximately 240 km east of the Orkney Islands.


The pockmarks at the site are shallow, ovoid, seabed depressions, several metres across, which were probably formed by the venting of biogenic/petrogenic fluids or gases into the water column. In this location, large blocks, pavement slabs and smaller fragments of methane derived authigenic carbonate (MDAC) (a type of Annex I habitat ‘submarine structures made by leaking gages’) have been deposited through a process of precipitation during the oxidation of methane gas. Survey data from 2012 identified 11 stations containing MDAC samples from grab analysis, and other areas of high acoustic reflectance within the pockmarks suggesting hard substrate is present. These require further investigation to examine whether they represent MDAC, shell hash or variations in sediment particle size.


These MDAC and carbonate structures are ecologically significant because they provide a habitat for marine fauna usually associated with rocky reef, and very specific chemosynthetic organisms which feed off both methane (seeping from beneath the sea floor) and its by-product, hydrogen sulphide. Larger blocks of carbonate also provide shelter for fish species such as wolf-fish and cod.


The total extent of ‘Submarine structures made by leaking gases’ in the UK is unknown. However it is likely that the feature at Braemar pockmarks SAC comprises of more than 15% of the total extent of the resource across the UK and is therefore an important example of this habitat type.


Within the same biogeographic region (Northern North Sea) Scanner Pockmark SAC also contains examples of the Annex I feature ‘Submarine structures made by leaking gasses’. This site is located approximately 80km SWS of Braemar Pockmarks SAC.  In character, the interest features of the two sites are similar; however, the carbonate structures at Braemar are more abundant and diverse in form, and appear to be characterised by slightly different species assemblages.


Site location - Coordinates for this SAC can be found in the Natura 2000 Standard Data Form listed in the Relevant Documentation.

Site area - 5.18km2

Site depth range: Depth at the site is relatively even and ranges from 120m – 124m below sea level.

Charting Progress 2 biogeographic region - Northern North Sea.


Site boundary description
The boundary for the Braemar pockmarks is a simple polygon enclosing the minimum area necessary to ensure protection of the Annex I habitat. Coordinate points have been positioned as close to the edge of the interest feature as possible, rather than being located at the nearest whole degree or minute point. As bottom trawling is a significant threat to the interest feature, the proposed boundary includes a margin to ensure its protection.    




Last updated: June 2017


There is a range of data that underpin this SAC. The full overview of the data used to support site identification, along with information on confidence in feature presence and extent, is available in the Braemar Pockmarks SAC Selection Assessment Document. All data that can be made publicly available is displayed on the MPA interactive map, which can be reached by clicking the map provided.


Some of the data for this SAC has been collected through JNCC funded or collaborative surveys and some through other means. Data from these surveys provide direct evidence confirming the presence of the protected features within the site.



Map displaying the MPA and relevant underpinning data.


Survey and data gathering

  • Cruise report for the offshore seabed survey of Braemar Pockmarks SAC and Scanner Pockmark SAC (2017) - This cruise report summarises operations and initial observations made on board the RV Cefas Endeavour during the cruise CEND19x/12 on behalf of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The survey took place between 17th November and 1st December 2012. The aim was to gather additional evidence to support the development of fisheries management measures and develop a baseline for future site monitoring.


Data analysis reports
Analyses of data gathered as part of the survey listed above, as well as other relevant data analysis products, are available via the following reports:

  • Offshore seabed survey of Braemar Pockmarks and Scanner Pockmark (2017) - Presents resultsfrom the analyses of the data gathered during the seabed survey of the Braemar Pockmarks and Scanner Pockmark in 2012 (cruise CEND19x/12). The report describes the presence, location and extent of the pockmarks, along with detail relating to the presence and location of any associated Methane Derived Autogenic Carbonate (MDAC) structures where they were observed to occur based on video, stills and laboratory sample analysis.
  • Geological investigation of pockmarks in the Braemar Pockmarks SCI and surrounding area (2015) - Describes the findings of a desk study carried out by British Geological Survey (BGS) for the JNCC covering the Braemar Pockmarks area. The main dataset for this study in the JNCC research cruise at the end of 2012 (cruise CEND19x/12). The report confirmed there is strong evidence of active gas seepage within Braemar SAC, including the presence of methane derived authigenic carbonate (MDAC), as well as gas bubbles in the water column. MDAC was recorded 11 times within six different pockmarks, (5 within the site boundary, the other just 500m outside) during the 2012 survey. Some pockmarks show change in their morphology reflecting slope failure, supporting the interpretation that these pockmarks are sites of active processes. Strong acoustic reflections shown in multibeam backscatter data suggest that harder substrate may be present in other areas of the site too. These require further investigation (such as through visual observation or seabed sampling) to determine whether they are examples of carbonate blocks, shell fragments or a change in sediment particle size.
  • Petrography and stable isotope study of methane – derived authigenic carbonate (MDAC) from the Braemar Pockmark Area, North Sea (2013) - The British Geological Survey was commissioned by CEFAS to undertake petrographic and stable isotope investigation of samples of carbonate-cemented sediment recovered from the JNCC/CEFAS 2012 survey. Reporting is underway and will be made available in due course.


Additional relevant literature

References for further supporting scientific literature consulted during the identification of this site can be found in the Selection Assessment Document. Please be aware that although these sources contain information in relation to this MPA, they do not necessarily represent the views of JNCC.

  • Judd, A.G. and Hovland, M. (2007). Seabed fluid flow: the impact on geology, biology and the marine environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press- Describes seabed fluid flow features and processes, and demonstrates their importance to human activities and natural environments.
  • Biddick, K., Spink, J. and Nichols, P. (2006). Harding Area Gas Project - Seabed Habitat Assessment Survey, Environmental Habitat Assessment Report - Volume 3. Report for BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd by Gardline Environmental Ltd - Details a habitat assessment survey conducted by Gardline Environmental on behalf of BP, for two proposed new pipeline routes within the vicinity of Braemar oil field.
  • Hartley, J.P. (2005), Seabed investigation of Pockmark Features in UKCS Block 16/3, Report to JNCC - Details several pockmarks containing carbonate cemented rocks and chemosynthetic biota discovered in the central North Sea in the vicinity of the Braemar field (UKCS Block 16/3). The pockmarks are of note as they occur outside areas previously recognised as containing pockmarks.
  • Berry, T. and Stewart, E. (2002). Braemar Pipeline Route Surveys. Report for Marathon Oil U.K Ltd. - A geophysical and geotechnical sampling, and an environmental baseline survey along three proposed pipeline routes in UKCS block 16/3, 16/7 and 16/8, carried out by Fugro survey limited on the instructions of Marathon Oil U.K. Ltd.
  • Marathon Oil UK Ltd (2002). Braemar Field Development Environmental Statement - This Environmental Statement presents the findings of the Environmental Assessment conducted by Marathon for the proposed Braemar field development.
  • Dando, P.R. (2001). A review of pockmarks in the UK part of the North Sea, with particular respect to their biology. Technical report produced for Strategic Environmental Assessment – SEA2. Department of Trade and Industry Technical Report No. TR_001 - The report describes pockmarks in the UK north Sea, and their biology. Although this paper doesn’t refer to Braemar Pockmarks specifically there is good detail on species found within Pockmark habitats.
  • Judd, A.G. (2001). Pockmarks in the UK Sector of the North Sea. Technical report produced for Strategic Environmental Assessment – SEA2. Department of Trade and Industry Report No. TR_002 - The report describes pockmarks, their formation and character, and their occurrence in the North Sea (with specific reference to the SEA2 areas). The report reviewed current understanding of pockmarks in the UK North Sea, with specific reference to the methane-derived authigenic carbonate (MDAC).
  • Dando, P.R., Austen, M.c., Burke, R.J., Kendall, M.A., Kennicutt, M.c., Judd, A.G., Moore, D.C., O'Hara, S.C.M., Schmaljohann, R. and Southward, A.J. (1991), Ecology of a North Sea Pockmark with an active methane seep. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 70: 49-63 - Survey of a large pockmark in the Fladen ground area of the North Sea. Data from echo-sounders and sediment grabs reveals more about the ecology within the pockmark.
  • Hovland, M. and Judd, A.G. (1988). Seabed Pockmarks and Seepages: Impact on geology, biology and the marine environment. London: Graham and Trotman - This report describes the ecology of seabed pockmarks and seepages and the implications and consequences of these features. Two chapters focus on examples in the North Sea, but other examples from around the world are also described. Features associated with submarine seepages and mineral precipitation is also explored in the report.


Knowledge gaps
If you are aware of any additional information not referred to in the Relevant Documentation listed or here, please contact JNCC.


Conservation Advice


Last updated: February 2018


Updated formal conservation advice is now available for this MPA.  Further information on the approach used to develop this advice is available on the Conservation Advice webpage along with a Glossary of Terms used in JNCC conservation advice and a short video explaining how to use the conservation advice packages. 


You must refer to this advice if you:

  • undertake a Habitats Regulation Assessment (HRA) for a plan or project that could impact the site;
  • provide information for a HRA;
  •  respond to specific measures to support delivery of the conservation objectives for the site; and 
  • consider the need to put new or additional management measures in place.


You may also find it useful to refer to this advice if you:

  • Carry out any other activity that could impact the site.


We will engage with stakeholders to identify any lessons which JNCC can learn from customers who have used the advice, with a view to continuing to ensure it is fit-for-purpose.

The following table provides an overview of the components of the conservation advice, and provides hyperlinks to each of the products for this MPA. These elements together form JNCC’s formal conservation advice for this site and should be read in conjunction with each other. This updated advice replaces the previous Regulation 18 package for the site.  This advice reflects the most up-to-date evidence held by JNCC (correct as of February 2018). A zipped folder enabling these documents to be downloaded together is available at the bottom of this page. 


Document Overview
Background Information Explains the purpose of the advice and when it must be referred to.

Conservation Objectives


Supplementary Advice on the Conservation Objectives (SACO)

The conservation objectives set out the broad ecological aims for the site. JNCC provide supplementary advice in the SACO which is essential reading to support interpretation of these conservation objectives. It provides further detail and site-specific information for each feature within the site including which of the attributes need to be conserved and which ones recovered.

You can use these documents to assess the impacts of your planned activity on the important attributes of the site.

Conservation Advice Statements

These statements provide a summary of the Supplementary Advice on the Conservation Objectives (SACO).

  • Site condition presents our up to date understanding of the condition of features within the site;
  • Conservation benefits which the site can provide, these help you understand what is important about the site and why it needs protecting; and
  • Conservation measures which JNCC consider are needed to support achievement of the conservation objectives. These provide clarity around measures needed to support restoration or maintenance of the feature(s) within the site.
Advice on Operations

Provides information on the activities capable of affecting site integrity and therefore achievement of the site’s conservation objectives.

This is a starting point for determining potential management requirements. It does not take into account the intensity, frequency or cumulative impacts from activities taking place. It is simply to advise you of the possible adverse impacts that your activity can have on a MPA’s features.

Use the advice on operations to determine those pressures your activity causes that could harm the habitat and/or species features of the site.




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Activities and Management


Last updated: June 2017


Management status: Progressing towards being well managed


Progress is ongoing with the recommendation of fisheries management proposals to the European Commission and ongoing site condition monitoring work will be required in order to conclude with confidence as to the degree to which the site is moving towards or achieving its conservation objectives.


This site forms part of the UK's contribution to the OSPAR commissions network of MPAs, Europe’s Natura 2000 network and the Emerald network established under the Bern Convention. As the UK is a signatory to the OSPAR commission, JNCC are committed to ensuring that the OSPAR MPA network is ‘well-managed’ by 2020.


JNCC consider ‘well-managed’ to mean the timely progress of an MPA around the ‘MPA management cycle’. This involves:

1)    The documentation of appropriate management information - conservation objectives, advice on activities capable of affecting the protected features of a site, and spatial information on the presence and extent of the protected features of a site.

2)    The implementation of management measures - management actions considered necessary to achieve the conservation objectives of a site.

3)    Site condition monitoring programmes – collecting the information necessary to determine progress towards a sites conservation objectives.

4)    Assessment of progress towards conservation objectives – using available information to infer whether or not a site is moving towards or has achieved its conservation objectives.


The sub-sections that follow provide an account of the progress of Braemar Pockmarks SAC around each of the four stages in the MPA management cycle.


The documentation of appropriate management information

  • The conservation objectives and advice on activities capable of affecting the conservation status of the protected feature of this site are available under the conservation advice tab.
  • JNCC are in the process of improving our MPA conservation advice packages. Further information is available on our conservation advice pages.
  • Spatial information on the presence and extent of the protected feature of this MPA is available via JNCC's MPA mapper.
  • JNCC are in the process of developing downloadable MPA data packages where appropriate permissions to share datasets are in place.


The implementation of management measures

This section details progress towards the implementation of management measures for activities considered capable of affecting the conservation status of the protected feature of the site. The protected feature of the site is considered to be sensitive to pressures associated with fishing and ‘licensable’ activities.



  • There is evidence of mobile and static demersal fishing effort within the Braemar Pockamrks SAC. UK and non-UK registered vessels have been active in the area. 
  • The site falls outside the UKs 12 nautical mile limit and is to be exclusively managed under the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). In accordance with Article 18 of the revised CFP, requests for management will be developed jointly between the UK Government and any Member States with a direct management interest in the area affected.
  • Marine Scotland are the lead authority regarding the implementation of, and compliance with, any measures to managing fishing activity. Further information on progress is available via Marine Scotland’s web pages.  


Licensable activities

  • This MPA got its name from its close proximity to the Braemar Hydrocarbon Field. A wellhead of this field and connecting pipelines lie just outside the boundary of the site. There is also one exploration well for oil within the site (status completed).
  • Any activities or future proposals would have to comply with Article 6(3) of the EU Habitats Directive 1992, which is transposed into UK law by the Conservation of Offshore Marine Habitats and Species Regulations 2017.
  • Our conservation advice supports the consents process by setting out the conservation objectives for the protected feature of this MPA and advice on activities that may result in pressures to which the protected feature is considered sensitive.
  • Further information on JNCC's role in the provision of advice for licensed activities in the UK offshore area is available on JNCC's offshore industries advice webpage



  • There is one telecommunications cable which runs across the North of the site in an east to West direction. This cable is out of service.
  • Cables are largely an unregulated activity in offshore waters depending upon the type of cable being laid (or maintained), where it is being laid between and whether the cable is part of a larger development (which may be regulated). Any cable not directly associated with an energy installation does not require a marine license beyond 12 nautical miles. 
  • JNCC encourages early discussion from operators regarding any plans related to new or existing cables, and encourages the undertaking of non-statutory environmental impact assessments for new or existing cable projects to assess their effect on the protected features of the MPA. 



  • There is low density of commercial shipping in this area and due to its offshore location, vessel anchorage is unlikely. The Lerwick to Hanstholm ferry route crosses the south-west corner of the site.
  • Under international law (UNCLOS, Article 17), ships have a right of innocent passage at sea including in areas designated as MPAs. The pressures associated with shipping activity within Braemar Pockmarks SAC are not considered likely to impact the protected feature of the site.


Site condition monitoring

A baseline condition survey was undertaken in 2012 which was also used to gather evidence to support the development of fisheries management measures. Further information is provided in the evidence and monitoring tabs.


Assessment of progress towards conservation objectives

No long-term condition monitoring data are available to determine whether the MPA is moving towards or has reached its conservation objectives. The site has a ‘restore’ conservation objective based on the findings of a vulnerability assessment which suggests the site is unlikely to be moving towards its conservation objectives. Further information will be provided under the assessment tab as it becomes available.




Last updated: February 2017


JNCC is currently leading on the development of a strategy for biodiversity monitoring across all UK waters, to include MPA monitoring. For MPAs, data and evidence collected from monitoring activities will aim to:

  • Enable assessment of condition of the features within sites;
  • Enable assessment of the degree to which management measures are effective in achieving the conservation objectives for the protected features;
  • Support the identification of priorities for future protection and/or management; and,
  • Enable Government to fulfil its national and international assessment and reporting commitments in relation to MPAs and help identify where further action may be required.


Information on monitoring of this MPA will be provided when it becomes available.




Last updated: February 2017


Assessments of the condition of designated features in offshore MPAs are required to report against our legal obligations. Ideally these assessments should be based on observed data, and then measured against targets for predefined indicators. However, for MPAs in offshore waters we do not always have the appropriate information to be able to do so. This is particularly true for seabed habitats, which are the main type of feature designated for protection in offshore MPAs. 


To address these challenges, JNCC has been an active partner in the development of new approaches and tools for the assessment of habitats and species for a variety of national and international status reports. They include the second cycle of the Conservation Status Assessment reports under the EU Habitats Directive, Charting Progress 2 (CP2) and the OSPAR Quality Status Report (QSR). JNCC continues to develop and pilot tools for the assessment of marine habitats and species in offshore waters to improve the quality and transparency of our offshore MPA assessments, and contribute to the monitoring of marine biodiversity in UK waters. These tools cover methods for producing interim assessments of site features and their responses to pressures, as well as developing more robust indicators for determining condition of the features.


Every six years, Member States are required under Article 17 of the EU Habitats Directive to report on the Conservation Status of Annex I habitats and Annex II species on the Habitats Directive.  The assessments should consider the habitat or species both within the Natura 2000 network and in the wider sea.  The latest report was submitted by the UK in 2013 and provided a second assessment of the conservation status of relevant habitats and species within UK marine waters during 2007-2012. The conservation status assessment for 'Submarine structures made by leaking gases' was undertaken at the scale of the whole UK marine resource for this habitat, and as such the conclusions are not specific to this MPA. The next report is for the period 2013-2018 and is due in 2019; information on the condition of features within SACs will make a contribution to this report. 


The assessments of features within MPAs will also feed into six yearly reports on the state of the marine environment under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), which aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020.



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