Figure E2i. Public sector expenditure on
biodiversity in the UK, 2000-1 to 2010-11.
Notes: Deflated using UK Gross Domestic Product
Source: Defra, Her Majesty's Treasury.
Figure E2ii. UK public sector expenditure on
international biodiversity 2000-1 to 2010-11.
Notes: Deflated using UK Gross Domestic Product
Assessment of change in public expenditure
Public sector expenditure on biodiversity in the UK
|UK public sector expenditure on international
- Spending is one way of assessing the priority
that is given to biodiversity within the UK public sector.
Funding for international biodiversity is essential for the
implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in
- In 2010-11, £458.9 million of UK public
sector funding was spent on UK biodiversity, a decrease of 5
per cent compared with 2009-10. Between 2000-1 and 2010-11,
public sector spending on UK biodiversity increased by 79 per cent
in real terms.
- In 2010-11, UK public sector funding for
international biodiversity totalled £50.2 million.
International spending by the UK public sector has increased by 62
per cent since 2000-1 in real terms. However, there has been
a reduction since 2007-8.
- In 2010-11, GDP in the UK was £1,477,883
million, an increase of 2 per cent compared with 2009-10.
Since 2000-1 UK GDP has grown by 17 per cent. Public
sector funding on UK biodiversity relative to the GDP fell in
Public sector spending on UK biodiversity
increased between 2000-1 and 2008-9, from around £257 to £497
million, but this has since fallen to £459 million in 2010-11.
In 2010-11, expenditure was about 5 per cent less than
2009-10 but 79 per cent above the spending in 2000-1. Over
the same period UK GDP increased by 17 per cent. The
indicator is therefore assessed as improving since 2000.
The trend for UK public sector funding on
international biodiversity shows an increase between 2000-1 and
2010-11. The most prominent rise was in 2003-4 with increased
contributions to the Global Environment Facility (GEF), followed by
a 7 per cent increase in 2004-5. However, since this peak in
2004-5, there has been a 17 per cent reduction (at 2010-11
prices) in funding for international biodiversity work.
Assessment for both measures is by assessing
whether the change over the period is greater or less than a 3 per
cent rule of thumb (see methodology).
The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) deflator is a
measure of general inflation in the domestic economy – it captures
the price changes over a period of time. The deflator is
expressed in terms of an index number.
Spending is one way of assessing the priority
that is given to biodiversity within Government. Funding for
conservation work is critical to delivery of country
biodiversity and environment strategies. Adequate access to
resources is essential for the effective implementation of the
Convention on Biological Diversity in developing countries as part
of more general development aid and poverty alleviation.
The increases in public sector expenditure in
the UK should be considered in the context of the funding needed,
in tandem with appropriate policy and legislative measures, to a
level sufficient to meet UK and international biodiversity targets.
This indicator is based upon estimates of spending by the public
sector, combined with a range of estimates and assumptions about
the element relating to UK and international biodiversity, using
expert opinion from the relevant organisations wherever
possible. The information is collated by the Environmental
Statistics Service in Defra. A report on the methodology is
available: Indicators of funding of expenditure on
biodiversity in the UK, and of UK Government funding on
conservation of international biodiversity (see weblinks section).
The information published by the indicator is drawn from a
number of sources. The Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew is increasingly
involved in the international conservation of endangered plant
species as threats to the world's vegetation escalate. The
Global Environment Facility and Global Opportunities Fund are some
of the other institutions that channel funds directly to developing
countries in order to protect the environment and biodiversity.
In addition, the UK Government provides funding for
biodiversity through direct bilateral aid – the Darwin Initiative,
the Flagship Species Fund and the Overseas Territories Environment
Goals and targets
Aichi Targets for which this is a primary indicator
Strategic Goal E. Enhance implementation
through planning, knowledge management and capacity building.
Target 20: By
2020, at the latest, the mobilisation of financial resources for
effectively implementing the Strategic Plan 2011-2020 from all
sources and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process
in the Strategy for Resource Mobilisation should increase
substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject
to changes contingent to resources needs assessments to be
developed and reported by Parties.
Aichi Target for which this is a relevant indicator
Strategic Goal A. Address the underlying causes
of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across
government and society.
Target 2: By 2020,
at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into
national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and
planning processes and are being incorporated into national
accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.
Target 3: By 2020,
at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to
biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to
minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and
applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other
relevant international obligations, taking into account national
Web links for further information