International

 
Bern Convention
Eight invertebrate species listed in the Bern Appendices occur in the UK, one of which Helix pomatia is an ancient introduction and has, until now, had no specific conservation action targeted at it. Recent concerns about commercial collecting for human consumption have led to the proposal that H. pomatia be partially protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act.
 
· Austropotamobius pallipes (freshwater crayfish)
· Margaritifera margaritifera (freshwater pearl mussel)
· Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech)
· Coenagrion mercuriale (Southern damselfly)
· Eurodryas aurinia (marsh fritillary)
· Lycaena dispar (large copper)
· Lucanus cervus (stag beetle)
 
These species were included in the original UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) list of priority species, created between 1995 and 1999. However, following the review of UK BAP priority species and habitats (PDF, 1.3Mb), completed in 2007, Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech) and Lycaena dispar (large copper) were removed from the priority species list. Targeted survey work has been used to determine more acurately the distribution and viability of populations of these species in the UK. Ecological research to aid conservation has also been undertaken for six of the seven species; the exception being Hirudo medicinalis.
 
The Invertebrates Group of Experts meets approximately every two years to discuss implementation of the Convention.
 
Habitats and Species Directive
The Habitats Directive requires the establishment of a series of high quality Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) across Europe that will make a significant contribution to conserving the 169 habitat types and 623 species identified in Annexes I and II of the Directive. A total of 77 Annex I habitats occur in the UK, of which 22 are priority types. 51 Annex II species have been recorded in the UK in recent times, only one of which is a priority.
 
Eleven invertebrate species are listed under the directive:
 
· Austropotamobius pallipes (freshwater crayfish)
· Coenagrion mercuriale (Southern damselfly)
· Eurodryas aurinia (marsh fritillary)
· Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech)
· Limoniscus violaceus (violet click beetle)
· Lucanus cervus (stag beetle)
· Margaritifera margaritifera (freshwater pearl mussel)
· Vertigo angustior (narrow-mouthed whorl snail)
· Vertigo genesii (round-mouthed whorl snail)
· Vertigo geyeri (Geyer's whorl snail)
· Vertigo moulinsiana (Desmoulin`s whorl snail)
 
 
Convention on Biodiversity
The UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) was published in 1994, and was the UK Government's response to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which the UK signed up to in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. However, to reflect the changes in strategic thinking following the publication of the CBD's new 'Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020' and its 20 'Aichi Targets' in October 2010, the 'UK Post-2010 Biodiversity Framework' was launched in July 2012.