Date of introduction and origin
Clymenella torquata was first recorded from
Whitstable, Kent, in 1936 by Newell (1949a, 1949b; Pilgrim 1965).
It was introduced as a consequence of trade from the western
Atlantic between 1870 and 1936.
Method of introduction
It was introduced unintentionally in associated with the
American oyster Crassostrea virginica to oyster grounds on
the south-east coast of England (Newell 1954).
Reasons for success
Rate of spread and methods involved
It would not have appeared to have spread, except that a
single adult specimen was recorded 5 km off the Northumberland
coast in 1976.
Still recorded from Whitstable in 1959 (Pilgrim 1965;
Zibrowius & Thorp 1989) and also collected from Northumberland
in 1976 by R. Bamber (pers. comm.).
Factors likely to influence spread and distribution
Effects on the environment
Effects on commercial interests
Control methods used and effectiveness
Pilgrim (1965) commented that individuals collected from
Whitstable were 15 cm long while those from Beaufort, North
Carolina, USA, were only 6 cm long, but were otherwise the
Newell, G.E. 1949a. The occurrence of a species of
Clymenella Verrill (Polychaeta, fam. Maldanidae) on the
north coast of Kent. Nature,163: 648-649.
Newell, G.E. 1949b. Clymenella torquata (Leidy), a
polychaete new to Britain. Annals and Magazine of Natural
History, 2: 147-155.
Newell, G.E. 1954. The marine fauna of Whitstable. Annals
and Magazine of Natural History, 7: 321-350.
Pilgrim, M. 1965. The functional anatomy and histology of the
alimentary canal of the maldanid polychaetes Clymenella
torquata and Euclymene oerstedi. Journal of Zoology,
Pilgrim, M. 1966. The morphology of the head, thorax,
proboscis apparatus and pygidium of the maldanid polychaetes
Clymenella torquata and Euclymene oerstedi
.Journal of Zoology, 148: 453-475.
Zibrowius, H., & Thorp, C.H. 1989. A review of the alien
serpulid and spirorbid polychaetes in the British Isles.
Cahiers de Biologie Marine,30: 271-285.
Acknowledgements (contributions from questionnaire)
Dr C. Mettam, University of Cardiff.